When people talk about ketamine, they are speaking about the drug in a general way, as if there is only one type of ketamine.
But in actual fact, there are three types of ketamine: R,S-ketamine, S-ketamine, and R-ketamine. These three different versions of ketamine have varying applications.
To better understand this compound — and its uses in medical and therapeutic contexts — it will be helpful to elucidate these three types of ketamine.
Types Of Ketamine: R And S Ketamine
You can find ketamine as right- and left-handed mirror-image isomers known as R(+) and S(-) ketamine. These are enantiomer forms of ketamine.
Types Of Ketamine: R,S-Ketamine
This type of ketamine has the longest track record of medical use, with over 50 years of use for anesthesia and pain relief in medical settings.
Types Of Ketamine: S-Ketamine
S-ketamine (esketamine), sold under the brand name Spravato, is the S-enantiomer of ketamine.
Types Of Ketamine: R-Ketamine
Pre-clinical research and open-label trials indicate that R-ketamine may be superior to S-ketamine in the treatment of severe depression.
Many drugs, including ketamine, can be addictive due to them increasing dopamine levels in the brain.
Ketamine Has Addictive Properties