Ketamine Treatment: Everything You Need to Know from Costs to Benefits for Depression, Anxiety and More

Ketamine Treatment: Everything You Need to Know from Costs to Benefits for Depression, Anxiety and More

Ketamine treatment is gaining traction in the medical world, but in reality, ketamine is an unusual drug. On one hand, it has muscle-relaxing and anesthetic effects. But in high doses, ketamine takes the user completely away from their body, knocking them out completely. Dislocated shoulders and knees can be put back into their sockets. Doctors can perform surgery on children. 

This painkilling effect is why ketamine is classified as dissociative anesthetic. Yet some people also classify ketamine as a psychedelic, because it can also have considerable psychedelic effects at certain dosages. 

Ketamine creates a subjective feeling of detachment from the body and a person’s surroundings. As well as its primary effect of dissociation, ketamine can create other qualitative effects:

Interested in Ketamine Therapy? Find Ketamine Clinics Near You

What a Ketamine Treatment in a Clinic is Like

The Space

Ketamine treatments typically take place in offices that look like a dentist or doctor’s. Usually there’s a comfortable recliner, pictures on the wall, and medical equipment to inject the ketamine. There’s a sound system and/or headphones and eyeshades. (The environment matters somewhat; a comfortable space puts the patient at ease. But the physical surroundings during a high-dose ketamine treatment matter less than with other psychedelics, like mushrooms or LSD. On those drugs, the setting becomes amplified and more vivid. On ketamine, it’s the opposite; people are disconnected from the surroundings. It’s literally difficult to look at the room or move around it.)

The Intake

A nurse, doctor or physicians assistant will typically ask about the patient’s physical health to make sure they’re healthy enough for ketamine. Clinics may exclude people with certain maladies, like really high blood pressure or certain medications. People using ketamine for depression, bipolar, or any other mental health issue will likely talk to a therapist to make sure ketamine is right for them.

The Injection

In a clinic, medical professionals, like a nurse or an EMT, insert a needle in the shoulder or an IV in the arm. It hurts as much as a shot.

The Come Up

In most cases, ketamine’s effects come on fast. People feel themselves losing contact with the room, as if their senses have been covered in a blanket. They feel like they’re falling, like the recliner tipped backward and the ground opened up. They feel like they’ve lost contact with their body; they might not feel the chair under them or the person next to them holding their hand; it’s hard to move arms and legs, and difficult to speak. For people with chronic pain, this disconnection from their bodies is a blessing; the pain feels a mile away.

READ NEXT: What Does Ketamine Feel Like?

The Experience

A high dose of ketamine produces different effects for different people. Some say it’s total darkness. They say ketamine puts them in a black hole without shape or form, like being buried in a ten foot hole, or else in a dark room with slate-gray walls, like the inside of a mausoleum. Their ego dies; meaning, it’s hard to recall where they are, who they are or even if they’re alive. The sensation of dying can be terribly frightening and uncomfortable, like being stuck in a deep freezer you can’t get off of. Other people welcome the feeling of disappearing; they say a ketamine hole feels euphoric; they like losing control; they feel held and safe in the darkness. Their ongoing narrative of their life, which can often be negative, ends. They feel peace.

On the other hand, some people don’t feel blackness. They say ketamine puts them in a world full of shapes, colors, and images, like a kaleidoscope, people watch scenes from their lives play out in front of them; they feel they’re connecting to lost relatives or something larger than themselves. Patients replay traumas or past joys; people wail, sing, shake or cry. People often come out saying they feel changed as a human being.

The Come Down

In any case, the effects wear off relatively fast. Unlike other psychedelics, which go on for hours, the peak of ketamine is only about 45 minutes or an hour. About two hours after the injection people feel more or less normal, though they may feel wobbly.

The Afterglow

In the days after a ketamine treatment, it’s common to feel lighter. Problems may seem farther away or less weighty. People clean our their closets or drop relationships that aren’t serving them. Other people say they feel no change at all.

READ NEXT: Psychedelics Won’t Fix You. Here’s What They Will Do

A ketamine clinic waiting room by Plus by APN.

RELATED: Do Dosages of Psychedelics Differ for Anxiety, Depression, Pain and PTSD?

Ketamine’s Effects at the Various Dose Ranges

Lower Dosages

Lower dosages create effects often described as wavy or weird. You may feel somewhat stimulated or drowsy, and with a light body high. You may experience slight perceptual changes, including objects looking ‘high definition’ and sounds heard as strange. The normal patterns of thought can slow down, and forming sentences and processing information can be difficult. 

Medium Dosages

At a medium dosage, stereotypical psychedelic effects may come on: colors will be noticeably enhanced and vivid, walls and objects can move. You may feel drowsy, as well as a numbness across your body and slurring in your speech. You may feel some nausea, too, as well as higher heart rate and blood pressure. 

Higher Dosages

At a higher dose, you may experience more numbness and difficulty communicating. You will probably find it difficult to move and co-ordinate your body, which is why having a trip sitter or medical professional is so helpful. Higher doses of ketamine may cause more powerful psychedelic-style effects, including feelings of traveling to ‘other dimensions’ and complex visual imagery. Higher doses may also produce the ‘k-hole’ experience, in which the user is immobilized and their usual sense of self is loosened or erased. It is called a ‘k-hole’ because users may feel so detached from their surroundings that they appear to be at the receded end of a tunnel. There may be a feeling of ego dissolution or mystical interconnectedness, but also panic, anxiety and overwhelm, including the possibility of trauma.
Ketamine has shown increasing promise for treating psychiatric conditions like depression. 

BECOME A PSYCHEDELIC THERAPIST: Psychedelic-Assisted Therapy Certifications and Training

What a Low-Dose Ketamine Troche or Lozenge Experience is Like

Often, ketamine is used in lower doses. The medicine comes in the form of a lozenge or a small tablet called a troche. Or, sometimes, as a liquid you swish around your mouth.

At these lower doses, the effect is different. The patient isn’t disassociated from their bodes, down in a hole. On a troche or lozenge, the world is shifted slightly. The world slows down, including thoughts, as if someone’s train of thought is plowing through cubes of Jell-O. The world can look more digital or pixelated. Inhibitions can lower, facilitating talk about difficult or important things. On lower doses, therapists can talk to patient and do therapy. People can process emotions in a way that feels safer, calmer, and less threatening. This is called psycholytic–the psyche is loosened.

RELATED: What Are The Biggest Misconceptions About Ketamine Therapy?

An Overview of the Most Common Types of Ketamine Treatment

Ketamine Infusion ClinicInfusions are administered intravenously in a clinic under the supervision of a healthcare provider.Immediate effects, precise dosing, professional monitoring, option for co-therapy with a psychologist/psychiatrist.
Ketamine Nasal SprayEsketamine (Spravato) is a prescription nasal spray used along with an oral antidepressant, under medical supervision.Easy to administer, less invasive than IV, used in conjunction with an oral antidepressant, supervised use.
Oral KetamineKetamine can be prescribed in pill or lozenge form, usually taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider.Easier administration than IV or nasal spray, less invasive, can be administered at home under supervision, may be combined with psychotherapy.
Ketamine-Assisted Psychotherapy (KAP)Therapist-guided sessions where ketamine is used to enhance the therapeutic process. Usually combined with infusions or oral ketamine.Enhanced therapeutic outcomes, individualized care, beneficial for treatment-resistant conditions.
Telehealth Ketamine TherapySome providers may offer ketamine treatment in the form of a lozenge or nasal spray over telehealth. This requires close coordination with a healthcare provider.Allows treatment from the comfort of home, beneficial for those with mobility issues or a lack of nearby facilities, still requires supervision.

Please remember that while ketamine shows promise in treating conditions like depression, it should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional. It can have serious side effects and is not appropriate for everyone. This is an emerging field of study, and more research is needed to fully understand the benefits and potential risks.

The waiting room in Ketamine Clinics Los Angeles.

Here are the four main ways that ketamine treatments are administered as well as their typical dosages:

Interested in visiting a ketamine clinic? These are the four options of treatment you have. For a deeper dive into dosages, check out our breakdown of ketamine dosages.

1. Intranasal (Spravato/Esketamine)

Dosage: 28-84 mg per treatment session
How it Works: Typically administered twice a week for the first four weeks. Then once a week to once every two weeks thereafter.
Overview: Spravato must be delivered intranasally in a controlled medical setting while supervised by a healthcare professional. Patients must remain in the clinic for two hours after dosing to ensure aftercare. 

The bottles come only in 56 or 84 mg concentrations, which can make it hard to personalize treatment.

2. Oral Ketamine (Both Lozenges and Troches as well as Liquid)

Lozenges/Troches: In this method, the patient sucks on a pill until the ketamine dissolves in the mouth. Typically used in telehealth experiences.
Dosages: The dosage for ketamine lozenges can vary widely depending on the indication and patient response, but often ranges from 50-200 mg per administration.

Liquid form of Ketamine: The patient swishes the liquid around their mouth, allowing it to be absorbed by the pores on the insides of their cheeks.
Dosages: Doses are often done based on the patient’s weight. And typically range from 0.25 to 2 mg/kg, or about 12 mg to 300 mg.

3. Intravenous (IV) Infusion

How it Works: A doctor, nurse or EMT starts an IV in the patient, usually on the forearm, and injects ketamine using a special machine.
Dosages: for depression vary based on the individual and the indication for use. Treatments are typically administered over typically 4-6 sessions

Some patients may prefer IV ketamine because all of it is available to be absorbed and metabolized in the body (100 percent bioavailability). And the quantity of ketamine can be altered depending on the patients’ preferences.

4. Intramuscular (IM)

How it Works: A medical professional injects liquid ketamine into a patient’s muscle, usually the shoulder.
Dosage: Dosing vary, typically ranging from 0.2 to 0.5 mg/kg, with higher doses used in some cases.

For IM ketamine, 93 percent of the drug is available to be absorbed. This means that the precise amount of ketamine entering the body’s circulation isn’t known with certainty. 

A ketamine clinic in Irvine, California.

The History of Ketamine

Ketamine was first synthesized in 1962 as a safer alternative to phencyclidine, or PCP, which also affects the NMDA receptors. Ketamine is often caricatured as a “horse tranquilizer” for its use as an anesthetic in veterinary medicine. But ketamine has been used in human medicine for decades. Medics and doctors used ketamine in the battlefield in Vietnam as a fast-acting anesthetic for wounded soldiers. It’s a great drug for critically injured people because it doesn’t depress the heart rate or the respiration rate the way opioids like morphine and fentanyl do. Medics don’t have to worry about the person stopping breathing. Ketamine was approved by the FDA as a painkiller in 1970, and has since been included on the World Health Organisation’s List of Essential Medicines. 

RELATED: What Will the Ketamine Clinic of the Future Look Like?

How Ketamine Works on the Nervous System

Ketamine creates its painkilling and mind-altering effects predominantly through binding to the NMDA receptors and causing an increase in release of glutamate, which is a neurotransmitter (a chemical messenger in the brain and nervous system). 

Photo by Reynier Carl on Unsplash

What is Ketamine Treatment For?


In treating psychiatric conditions, ketamine is primarily used for depression. The first major evidence of ketamine’s short-acting antidepressant effects emerged in 2000, and have been documented in a range of observational studies, controlled trials, and meta-analyses. Ketamine creates increases in neuroplasticity and the levels of serotonin, glutamate, GABA and opioids in the nervous system, all of which may be structurally deficient among people diagnosed with depression. On a psychological level, ketamine can help with depression through providing distance and perspective from the events of a patient’s life.

It can encourage the formation of new insights, as well as fostering an interconnectedness beyond the imprisoned sense of self that often appears in depression.

Crucially, embedding new psychosocial perspectives through integration and therapy may prove the best option.

Hamilton Morris, the chemist and documentarian of psychedelic culture, suggests that ketamine operates through expanding the “aperture of possibility”.

“When you’re depressed and you’ve been depressed for a while, you can get locked into a certain type of thinking that is pessimistic, basically. And one that has a very limited view of the world, where you think this is who I am, I am this guy. This is what I do. It is what I’m good at. This is what I’m bad at. And I don’t do these other things and I don’t have any hope of doing those other things because this is who I am,” Morris says. Ketamine can open a person to more possibilities. 

“Oh, I should write a novel tomorrow. I guess I’ll be a movie star. I’ll be a medical doctor. I’ll be whatever. And, and if you’re depressed, that sounds delusional. ‘Be a politician.’ How on Earth could I be a politician? That makes no sense. But then, in that state, you think why not? Well, every politician had to begin with the thought. I can be a politician. So the first step of becoming a politician is to think that you can be a politician. And so I actually think delusional or potentially delusional self-image can be very therapeutic for people.”

Limitations of Ketamine Studies

That said, many studies on ketamine are open-label: that is, they are not randomized or compared to placebo controls. Researchers do not control for the placebo effect, or the role that patient expectations play in driving treatment.

As with other psychedelic research studies, those that do provide placebo control may face methodological obstacles because of the substances’ intense subjective effects, which render it obvious which drug the patient has been administered. IV and IM ketamine are not FDA-approved for any psychiatric condition and are prescribed off-label.

The most studied therapeutic form of ketamine is for the nasal spray, Spravato, which was approved by the FDA after three phase-3 trials.

While a short-term antidepressant effect was observed, results from two of the trials at the four-week end point of treatment were not significantly different from a placebo. The significant result indicated a four-point difference between the two, constituting a “minimal” clinical effect. The FDA’s approval of the drug was subject to considerable criticism by members of the psychiatric community. In its information about the drug, Janssen describes that “the effectiveness of SPRAVATO in preventing suicide or reducing suicidal ideation or behavior has not been demonstrated.”

That said, a large-scale meta-analysis compared intranasal esketamine with intravenous racemic ketamine for the treatment of depression. Systematically examining a number of relevant studies, the authors found that IV racemic ketamine provided greater response and remission rates. But the authors concede that the review was subject to “significant publication bias,” or the failure to publish studies that did not elicit statistically significant findings. This may have resulted in a broad inflation of effect sizes and an omission of adverse events. The follow-up times of studies in the review likewise stretched only between around one and two months after the treatment. The antidepressant profile of oral ketamine also requires more research, though findings suggest it is not as fast-acting as infusions.


Ketamine has also been researched for its application to anxiety-spectrum disorders. As with ketamine’s antidepressant mechanisms of action, ketamine can have anxiolytic (anti-anxiety) effects through loosening people’s association to embedded narratives and patterns of self-talk. A review of observational studies and controlled trials indicated that ketamine can provide a significant anti-anxiety effect, albeit many of those included were subject to the same methodological problems described above. Another meta-analysis found that four of the six randomized control trials included in the review suggested significant effects compared to control. The authors cautioned that their meta-analysis was based on a small number of studies whose differing methodologies and dosing regimens can limit comparability. 

RELATED: How Ketamine Treatment For Anxiety Works, Per Medical Experts


Ketamine treats pain — both chronic and other commons forms of pain. Doctors use it in the emergency department, paramedics use it on ambulances. Surgeons use ketamine to operate on children. It has been used successfully to treat chronic pain syndromes like fibromyalgia, burns, neuropathic pain, and migraine. Ketamine can impede a phenomenon known as “wind-up,” in which neurons in the spinal cord become hypersensitive. It can also lead to a reduced use of opioids and be helpful in treating the psychiatric complications that accompany chronic pain, including depression and anxiety: which may, in the case of fibromyalgia, be core to the condition. At the same time, there is a recognized shortage of randomized controlled trials to study its effectiveness on chronic pain, on top of issues with a lack of large sample sizes.


Ketamine can be used to treat Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), both through resolving psychological experiences and the neurophysiological effects of the drug on the brain. A number of case reports have been published to suggest a relieving effect, although authors have cautioned that the dissociative effects of ketamine could exacerbate the complications of PTSD. An observational study of 147 PTSD-afflicted soldiers found that the use of ketamine as a dissociative anesthetic in surgeries was associated with lower incidences of post-surgical PTSD symptoms. A double-blind randomized controlled trial of 41 chronic PTSD sufferers indicated a significant remedial effect within 24 hours of treatment compared to the control. Longer-term follow-ups were not conducted, however.

Bipolar Depression

One review of ketamine for bipolar disorder argues that “ketamine might be a promising treatment for bipolar disorder.” Another review found “preliminary evidence supporting the use of racemic ketamine to treat adults with bipolar depression.” 

Bipolar people are typically excluded from psychedelic treatments because classic psychedelics like mushrooms and LSD can make manic episodes worse. Ketamine, except in rare cases, tends not to make people go manic.


Ketamine may also show promise for the treatment of alcoholism, or alcohol use disorder. A randomized control trial of 96 alcoholic patients compared ketamine and placebo saline infusions, with each combined with either post-session therapy or a program of psychoeducation about the nature of alcohol addiction. Participants were followed up at six months, and greater success was found among the two groups administered ketamine. As with other studies on ketamine, authors recognized the potential confound introduced by small sample sizes and comparing a significant psychoactive in ketamine versus a non-psychoactive placebo. Ketamine could help people with addiction issues through altering memories associated with past use of the drug, which are often blighted by ‘rose-tinted’ perceptions and ‘euphoric recall’ that create temptation to relapse. 

Photo by Priscilla Du Preez on Unsplash

Consider Adding Therapy to Your Ketamine Treatment

Patients are advised to be conscientious when selecting the appropriate care package and treatment provider. Prior to being prescribed ketamine, you will undergo an evaluation to gauge whether you have any underlying conditions or current medications that may adversely interact with the drug. The screening procedure may vary in its comprehensiveness, however. 

The drug should ideally be situated as part of a broader therapeutic protocol that includes preparation, intention-setting, and integration therapy to make sense of your ketamine experiences and apply them to your life with the assistance of a professional. The majority of ketamine clinics do not offer such aftercare and integration assistance for reasons of cost reduction. If budgets permit, opting for a package that includes such therapies is advised. Some telehealth firms, for instance, may offer very limited follow-up like generic and automated messages to your smartphone. This has left some patients psychologically harmed

If such options are still preferable for reasons of cost, it is advised that additional therapy be pursued. Self-directed therapeutic programs are recommended for all patients, including self-care practices like journaling, minimizing life stress between treatments, decreasing social media use, consuming a healthy diet, and prioritizing healthy sleep. 

Ketamine in Therapy

Ketamine is not always administered in standalone psychedelic sessions. A practice known as Ketamine Assisted Therapy (KAP) combines lower doses of ketamine with an active therapy session. Usually administered in a lozenge, the patient may be guided by the therapist and engage in a dialogue about the material the drug has brought up. This may be part of a ‘psycholytic’ (as opposed to psychedelic) approach: the aim is not the detonation of an ordinary sense of self, but its lubrication to allow for greater access to memories, insights and emotional resources for a therapeutic dialogue.

What does Ketamine Treatment Cost?

Ketamine infusions can cost between $300 and $1500 per session, and varies depending on the supply/demand in your area and the size and offering of the clinic. There will be an initial consultation fee to decide whether you are eligible for the treatment. At-home treatments, where companies deliver ketamine lozenges to your door, provide the cheapest option, costing between $200 and $600 for a month’s supply of around six sessions. Innerwell and Mindbloom, two at-home ketamine distributors, use a state-by-state system of service providers.

Is Ketamine Treatment Covered by Insurance?

As of 2023, most major insurance companies and Medicare will cover the prescription of Spravato because it is FDA-approved. Patients will have to meet criteria for depression that is treatment-resistant (failure to respond to two antidepressant medications) and/or characterized by suicidal ideations and behaviors. Gaining insurance coverage for ketamine infusions may be more difficult, because they are prescribed and administered off-label. Some insurance companies, such as Blue Cross Blue Shield of North Carolina released a statement which very plainly stated that ketamine infusions will not be covered by insurance under any circumstances. Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts, Blue Cross Blue Shield of Vermont, and some regional insurance plans in Utah, however, will cover infusions.

Insurers may approach the prescription on a case-by-case basis, though, and some will cover infusions because ketamine is a “generic drug” with FDA approval for other indications. It is advised that patients check with their insurance providers and inquire about “out-of-network reimbursements.” Which means that companies will reimburse the cost if you’re willing to front it. 

What are the side effects of ketamine treatment?

As with any drug, ketamine has benefits as well as risks. Much of the risk of ketamine can be avoided through adequate pre-screening and close dialogue with your doctor and care provider. As well as through aftercare and integration. 

Ketamine is contraindicated for those with hypertension, because the drug can increase blood pressure. Ketamine is also cautioned for those using certain drugs and medications. As well as those living with urinary and bladder conditions, because the drug can cause bladder cystitis with long-term use. 

The trance state created by ketamine can be highly dysphoric and unpleasant. The ‘k-hole’ especially can be scary through fostering a sense of overwhelm and powerlessness. Especially if the state is accompanied by powerful hallucinations that may be disturbing and confounding compared to what you’d experience in everyday life. It may be doubly frightening because your ability to move and communicate for help are restricted. Any memories liberated by the drug should likewise be treated with caution, since many drugs are associated with creating false memories

It may cause confusion and poor decision making in the days after an experience. Ketamine elicits tolerance and may encourage abuse and addiction.

Ketamine’s strong dissociative effect may create prolonged dissociative reactions in the form of depersonalization and derealization, or a distressing feeling of detachment from your body and surroundings.

There is little evidence for the effects of repeated exposure to ketamine among psychiatric populations over extended periods. One under-researched possibility is that of a prolonged altered state of consciousness. Which the FDA noted could endure from three hours after consumption to “several weeks.” This relates to the risk of Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder, or HPPD. HPPD can occur when even a single drug experience (usually classic psychedelics like LSD, but also ketamine) can cause sustained visual disturbances that may last several years through altering the brain’s perceptual processing centers. There is evidence that prolonged use of ketamine in large doses can result in white matter changes, memory changes, and neurocognitive impairment.

Caution in general is warranted about drawing strong conclusions from empirical studies. As well as involving higher degrees of psychiatric follow-up and aftercare than that seen in real world clinics, studies may underestimate the frequency of complications. A recent review of clinical trials investigating esketamine found that 42% of serious adverse events were not included in publications, including suicidal ideation and completed suicides in close proximity to drug treatment.

A Hudson Mind ketamine treatment center in the New York City area.

Different Kinds of Ketamine and Treatment

“Ketamine” is not just a single drug. There are three different types. When we say “ketamine,” we’re usually referring to a specific kind called “racemic ketamine” that comprises an equal mixture of two subtypes: S-ketamine and R-ketamine, which are different geometric orientations of the underlying ketamine molecule. Racemic ketamine is sometimes called R-S ketamine. It has not been approved by the FDA as a treatment for any psychiatric disorder.

S-ketamine, also known as Esketamine, is sold under the brand name Spravato. It’s manufactured by Janssen, a subsidiary of Johnson and Johnson. The FDA approved Esketamine in the form of a nasal spray in 2019 as an intervention for treatment-resistant depression. Which is a kind of depression that has not responded to two antidepressant medications. In 2020, the FDA approved Esketamine for the treatment of major depressive disorder among adults who exhibit suicidal ideation and/or suicidal behavior. 

R-ketamine has not been approved by the FDA. But early evidence suggests that it might elicit stronger antidepressant effects than S-ketamine. R-ketamine (also called Arketamine) is also suggested to have less significant dissociative effects and activity at the NMDA and sigma receptors. 

Jonathann Kuo, MD, counsels a patient at Hudson Mind.

How Do Medical Professionals Give Ketamine Treatment?

Ketamine may be delivered in four different forms. While recreational ketamine is usually dispensed in powder form, this is not the case in a licensed clinic. Compared to recreational ketamine, there will be fewer adulterants and concentrations will be more strictly controlled. A recent New York Times investigation of legal ketamine manufacture. However, found that the industrial process may sometimes be affected by issues with impurity and lack of guarantees with concentration. 

Ketamine administration follows specified licensing and regulatory procedures attendant to outpatient treatment. Outpatient clinics must obtain state medical board licenses, adequate insurance coverage, follow Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards, the ability to store and take care of controlled substances, and specific county and city licenses.

Many of the strict safety protocols created by the FDA around Spravato use. This includes provider training, certification, monitoring, and adverse drug event reporting on every patient – are not mandatory for off-label use. 

How to Find Ketamine Clinic Near You

To check your options, you can scan a list of clinics near you here.

Ed Prideaux

Ed Prideaux

View all posts by Ed Prideaux

Ed is a journalist, writer and MSc Psychology student who has been focusing on harm reduction and critical research around psychedelic drugs, and helped to grow a nonprofit called the Perception Restoration Foundation. He's worked for the influential alternative media firm Rebel Wisdom, and has freelanced for a range of international publications.

Abid Nazeer

This post was medically approved by Abid Nazeer

Dr. Nazeer is the Founder and President of APS Ketamine/Advanced Psychiatric Solutions, which he established in 2016 as the first psychiatric outpatient ketamine clinic in Illinois. He is board certified in Psychiatry as well as Addiction Medicine. He completed his psychiatry residency at Louisiana State University Health Sciences in Shreveport where he held the role of Chief Resident. Dr. Nazeer is providing medical oversight to the growth plan of Wesana Clinics, with the model of comprehensive psychiatry clinics specialized ketamine and psychedelic therapies, integrated brain health and wellness centers, and technology utilization of Wesana Solutions remote patient monitoring product.

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